S K I P


SYSTEM OF KANJI INDEXING BY PATTERNS

          
[This document contains the text and examples from the covers of the "New 
Japanese-English Character Dictionary" edited by Jack Halpern and published
by Kenkyusha and NTC. It is reproduced with Mr Halpern's kind permission.

The text on which this is based used four patterns which are not able to be
reproduced in this document. They are referred to below as #1 through #4,
and relate to the following shapes in the NJECD:

              
              
              
      á        
      á        
      á        

      #1          #2          #3          #4
     LEFT-       TOP-       ENCLOSURE   SOLID
     RIGHT      BOTTOM]


                HOW TO LOCATE AN ENTRY

A. Determine the SKIP number of your character.

STEP 1  IDENTIFY PATTERN

Determine to which of the four PATTERNS your character belongs to get the
first part of the SKIP number (the PATTERN NUMBER).

If your character belongs to pattern #1, #2 or #3 (ꢪ#1), carry out the
steps in the left column; if it belongs to pattern #4 (#4), carry out the
steps in the right column. (REF: R4. How to Identify the Pattern) 

          #1  #2  #3                               #4

STEP 2  
 DIVIDE CHARACTER                        OMIT 
 Divide the character into two parts at  (Since solid characters 
 the first division point. [=+]    cannot be divided, go to 
 REF: R5. How to Divide the Character    STEP 3.) REF: R6. How to 
                                         Subclassify the Solid Pattern

STEP 3                                  
 COUNT STROKES OF SHADED PART            DETERMINE TOTAL STROKE-COUNT
 Count the strokes of the SHADED PART    Determine the total stroke-count of
 to get the second part of the SKIP      your character to get the second part
 number.  [ #1 1-4-]                   of the SKIP number. [ #4 4-3-]
 REF: Appendix 2. How to Count Strokes   REF: Appendix 2. How to Count Strokes

STEP 4
 COUNT STROKES OF BLANK PART             IDENTIFY SOLID SUBPATTERN
 Count the strokes of the BLANK PART     Determine to which of the four
 to get the third part of the SKIP       SOLID SUBPATTERNS your character
 number. [ #1 1-4-5]                   belongs to get the third part of the
 REF: Appendix 2. How to Count Strokes   SKIP number.  Select from: `' 1, 
                                         `' 2, `|' 3, or `' 4. [ #4 4-3-1]
                                         REF: R6. How to Subclassify the
                                         Solid Pattern 
      
After determining the SKIP number of your character, locate your character
entry in one of two ways: 

1. Determine the entry number in the Pattern Index beginning on p. 1952 then
locate your character entry in the main part of the dictionary.  See R3.1.2
Index Method for details.

2. Locate your character entry directly (without referring to the  Pattern
Index) from its SKIP number.  See R3.1.3 Direct Method for details.

NOTE: All references preceded by a section mark (R) refer to SYSTEM OF KANJI
INDEXING BY PATTERNS beginning on p. 106a


HOW TO IDENTIFY THE PATTERN

DETERMINE TO WHICH OF THE FOUR PATTERNS YOUR CHARACTER BELONGS

#1 Characters that can be divided into left and right parts
RIGHT:  4-5  Ȭ 1-1   1-11   3-3
WRONG:  1-3   1-4   3-2   ¿ 3-3

#2 Characters that can be divided into top and bottom parts
RIGHT:  1-1   3-3   2-3   5-4
WRONG:  1-2   4-2   8-4   4-3
 
#3 Characters that can be divided by an enclosure element
RIGHT:  3-8   3-2   8-3   3-5 
WRONG:  1-1   4-3  ̾ 3-3   5-4
                                            
#4 Characters that cannot be classified under patterns #1, #2, or #3
RIGHT:  8-1  ʼ 5-2   4-3  Ϳ 3-4
WRONG:  2-1   4-1   4-3

IF A CHARACTER CAN BE CLASSIFIED UNDER MORE THAN ONE PATTERN, SELECT THE ONE
THAT FOLLOWS THE NATURAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE CHARACTER
RIGHT:  2-5-2  Ȣ 2-6-9
WRONG:  1-2-5  Ȣ 1-7-8


HOW TO DIVIDE THE CHARACTER

DIVIDE THE CHARACTER INTO TWO PARTS AT THE FIRST DIVISION POINT

#1 Going from left to right, divide at the first space
RIGHT:  4-4   1-2   3-3
WRONG:  2-1   9-3

#2 Going from top to bottom, divide at the first space, horizontal line, or
   frame element, whichever comes first 
RIGHT:  1-2   2-8   3-4   2-3
WRONG:  2-1   6-4   2-5   1-2

#3 Going from the outside toward the inside, divide after the first enclosure
element                                   
RIGHT:  3-6   3-8   8-3   3-2
WRONG:  7-2   11-5

DO NOT VIOLATE THE PRINCIPLE OF ELEMENT INTEGRITY
   1. Never break through strokes  
        RIGHT:  3-2-2   WRONG:  1-1-4
   2. Never break through indivisible units 
        RIGHT:  1-3-8   WRONG:  1-1-10
   3. Never make unnatural divisions 
        RIGHT:  3-4-2   WRONG:  2-2-4

HOW TO SUBCLASSIFY THE SOLID PATTERN

A. DETERMINE TO WHICH OF THE FOUR SOLID SUBPATTERNS YOUR CHARACTER BELONGS

`T' 1. Characters that contain a top line
RIGHT:  8-1   3-1   6-1   8-1
WRONG:  2-1   3-2   8-1  ʼ 5-1

2. Characters that contain a bottom line
RIGHT:  3-2  ʼ 5-2   8-2
WRONG:  3-2   5-2   8-2

3. Characters that contain a through line
RIGHT:  4-3   8-3   4-3
WRONG:  4-3   3-3   4-3   7-3

4. Characters that do not contain a top line, bottom line, or through line
RIGHT: Ϳ 3-4   3-4   7-4
WRONG:  6-4   3-4  ͧ 4-4   6-4

B. IF A CHARACTER CAN BE CLASSIFIED UNDER MORE THAN ONE SUBPATTERN, THE
SUBPATTERN WITH THE SMALLEST NUMBER TAKES PRECEDENCE
RIGHT:  4-1   3-1   7-1   8-1   5-2   5-2   5-1
WRONG:  4-2   3-2   7-2   8-3   5-3   5-3   5-3